Each student was responsible for completing research and photography for this project as follows:
Hilary Hamilton '08 (A-E), Bence Marton '08 (F-L), Caty Owen '07 (M-R), and Zeewan Lee '07 (S-W).
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A sculptural carving that projects only slightly from the wall.
This design lives in the foyer outside the chapel and was created by the Delano & Aldrich firm in 1931. This is actually something I had never really noticed until I was looking around the school for architectural features. It seems strange though, since it is very elegant. It reminds me a lot of the works by della Robbia.
An ornamental bracket, shaped as a square or rectangle, usually used to support a Corinthian cornice.
The decoration can be seen outside the chapel and was designed in 1931 by the Delano & Aldrich firm.
A feature that exists either in rib vaulting, or like here, in furniture.
It is best described as oval knobs that were used most prominently in 17th and 18th century English and American pieces. These pictures come from the Harris House living room. The boss was designed by Rossiter and Wright between 1904-1924. Like the Bas-relief, this was another design I had never noticed until I was specifically searching the school. Even when I found it, I wasn’t sure what it was called. But I thought that it was so ornate and detailed that it must be defined as something. One of my favorite aspects of this piece is the coloring of the wood. The dark, almost mahogany color, adds richness and sophistication to the room.
Found in most every style of architecture, but especially in Classicism, this is simply a circular window.
It is also called an oculus (Latin for eye). This window is found at the end of Buehler facing towards the library. It was designed by Henry Waterbury and is 71 years old. I love that all the dorms are having something that is uniquely their own. For Buehler, this window is one of those features. Since it is practically the center of campus, it seems important to have something that sets it apart a little.
Also known as a Widow’s Walk, this feature is a narrow walkway on the roof.
It is typically found on New England homes. On the top of Wieler, this feature was created by the ARC company in 1989. This makes my dorm a little more festive and a little more special. Mainly though, I like to see some New England-specific architecture since Hotchkiss is first and foremost a New England boarding school.
A panel or tablet that contains any sort of inscription.
Though typically shaped as an oval or circle, they are often found in squares or rectangles, as they are here. These two cartouches are housed on the main entrance to the main building. This main entrance, which includes the two Cartouches, was built by Shope Reno Wharton in 1995. When architecture at Hotchkiss is mentioned, this particular feature is what comes to mind first. They are what I see every morning as I drive up the main driveway, I can’t imagine Hotchkiss without them.
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This is the edge of a corner of wood, typically at a 45 degree angle.
These pictures come from the English wing, but the same feature can be seen in Main Hall and many other places around the Main Building. Created by Hugh Stubbins from 1964-1967, it adds a little decoration to the halls. The mix of light and dark wood along with the white walls helps keep the hallways bright. In the winter, especially, when the light is naturally darker, this design really lifts the mood for me.
The stone, brick, or cement part of a chimney that juts into the room.
The chimney breast also holds the flue. This feature is in the piano room of the Harris House. It was built by Rossiter and Wright from 1904-1924 off of the original structure from 1894. The Harris House is filled with interesting architectural features. This particular one allows for the Harris House to have a certain homey feel. Though rarely used, it adds a familiar and comfortable feel to the entire space.
An upper story row of windows.
They are often found in Romanesque and Gothic churches. At Hotchkiss, this clerestory is found in the dining hall. The dining hall was first built in 1894, but was updated in 1948 by Henry Waterbury to include the clerestory. I love the amount of light in the dining hall. These windows create a cheerful and vibrant tone for mealtimes. The decorative aspect of it adds much to the ambiance of the room.
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Brickwork that is incredibly practical because it can be laid very quickly.
The layout alternates between the header (the short side of the brick) and the stretcher, the long side of the brick. This wall is near the spiral stairs of the Music Wing. It was designed by Centerbrook Architects between 1999 and 2004. Brick is the classic Hotchkiss look. For me, the more brick that is used, the more all the parts of the school fit together. The Music Building is one of the only non-brick sections of the school, and I think putting this wall on the inside is very appropriate.
Windows that exist in a sloping roof.
These are arched and pediment dormer windows and can often be found in Beaux Arts Classical style and Georgian Revival, respectively. At Hotchkiss, these windows are found on many dorms. Here, they are shown as a part of Wieler. Wieler was first built as a hospital in 1928, but was updated in 1989 by the company Architectural Resources Cambridge (ARC) to include the Dormer Windows. As my dorm, Wieler is one of my favorite building on campus. The dormer windows make the rooms on the third floor especially cozy and allow for an interesting shape for the rooms.
Small drop-like projections that are carved underneath Doric entablature.
This example of a drop is found in the chapel foyer, which was designed in 1931 by the Delano & Aldrich firm. I think it is the little details like this that make a building and its architecture special and interesting. Clearly, this carving serves no purpose other than to dress up the woodwork a little bit. Again, it isn’t overly ornate, and thus fits well with the Hotchkiss chapel. These small pieces are what makes Hotchkiss architecture fun to study.
The façade is the exterior face of a building, which is the architectural front.
The ever-changing Main Building was built in 1892 and was reconstructed many times -- in 1966, 1984 and again in 1995. The original designer had been chosen by the very first trustees and they entrusted Bruce Price to build it. Later, when it came to reconstruction, the architects were Hugh Stubbins (the original idea of a contemporary design came from Paul Rudolph in the first place), Evans Woollen (alumnus of Hotchkiss) and Shope Reno Wharton. The building itself can be found in the middle of Main Street at the end of the straight driveway from the entrance of the school.
A window above a door, usually semicircular or semielliptical, with glazing bars radiating out like a fan.
It became an increasingly important element in the design of the front door as the 18th century progressed. Gradually it became more popular to reduce the height of the door, replacing its upper register of panels with a fixed glazed panel ("fanlight") that admitted light to the hallway. Harris house originally was the headmaster’s residence. It was built in 1894 and was reconstructed in 1912 and 1995 by the New York architects Rossiter and Wright. It is situated in the western end of the Main Street. After a while, the place was needed for other purposes, so in 1994 the headmaster moved to a new house, which was a gift from Fred Frank ‘50. After the headmaster moved out, the house was most recently redesigned in 2008 for housing the Admission Office.
Shallow, concave grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column, pilaster or other surface: they may meet in an arris or be suspended by a fillet.
If the lower part is filled with a solid cylindrical piece it is called cabled fluting. This example is found in the Hotchkiss Chapel, which was built in 1931 by Henry Stuart Waterbury after having rejected the Cass Gilbert design. It was essentially attached to the west side of the Main Building.
An ornamental design consisting of repeated and symmetrical figures, often in relief, contained within a band or border.
Some historians feel that the Greek key or meander (illustrated above) has its basis in the Greek myth of the labyrinth that imprisoned the minotaur. A meander is a running ornament consisting of a fret design with many involved turnings and an intricate variety of designs. We can find this design in Greek and Roman architecture, and in all their derivatives such as Federal, Roman Revival, Neoclassicism or Greek Revival. This example is found in the Hotchkiss Chapel.
The triangular upper portion of a wall at the end of a pitched roof.
It normally has straight sides, but there are variants. A crow-stepped or corbie-stepped gable has stepped sides.. A Dutch gable has curved sides crowned by a pediment. A hipped gable has the uppermost part sloped back. A shaped gable has multi-curved sides. This gable is found on Harris House, originally the headmaster’s residence. It was built in 1894 and was reconstructed in 1912 and 1995 by the New York architects, Rossiter and Wright. It is situated on the western end of the Main Street. After a while, the place was needed for other purposes, so in 1994 the headmaster moved to a new house, which was a gift from Fred Frank '50. After the headmaster moved out, the house was redesigned most recently in 2008 for housing the Admission Office.
A window in a gable or a gable-shaped window.
This example is found in Hotchkiss House #22. House #22 was built in 1928 in the Victorian and shingle style, which makes it an "outsider" among the surrounding Georgian houses. It forms a quadrangle with Memorial and Wieler Halls. In 2007 it was Mr. Flemma’s family’s residence.
An elevated section of the seating area of a building for public worship or auditorium.
It can be found both in interior and exterior spaces. The term is applied variously, for example in church architecture to the area over a side aisle (also called a Tribune) and in secular architecture to the elevated seating in a theatre. This example is found in the Hotchkiss Chapel.
A rusticated door or window surround with alternating large and small blocks of stone.
The technique was named after the Scottish architect James Gibbs (1682-1754), the most influential London church architect of the early 18th century who used this decoration first. Buehler Hall and Coy Hall both have this feature. Both dormitories were built around the same time (Buehler: 1936, Coy: 1931) and were reconstructed in 1973. They were named after the first and the second headmasters of Hotchkiss. They were, after the Chapel, the works of Henry Waterbury. With Coy he established the so called "Hotchkiss Georgian Style." They are situated right after the entrance, opposing each other with their L-shapes.
A projecting part of a building, as a higher story of a house.
The original idea of the jetty came from Venice in Ancient Rome; the increased population led to higher buildings and acute land shortages in the city centre. Many streets were extremely narrow, but additional space was gained on upper floors by jetties (barbacani) and by building over streets (sottoporteghi). This example is found on Bissell Cottage, which was built in the 1890s by the main designer of Hotchkiss, Bruce Price. This four-square formed house can be found at one end of Bissell Dormitory, being in rhythm with it by its shape.
The central stone, sometimes carved, in the curve of an arch or vault; the central voussoir of an arch.
Frequently used in Georgian Revival, Renaissance Revival and Romanesque Revival. Harris House, where this example can be found, originally was the headmaster’s residence. It was built in 1894 and was reconstructed in 1912 and 1995 by the New York architects Rossiter and Wright. It is situated in the western end of the Main Street. After a while, the place was needed for other purposes, so in 1994 the headmaster moved to a new house, which was a gift from Fred Frank '50. After the headmaster moved out, the house was redesigned most recently in 2008 for housing the Admission Office.
The decorative framework that surrounds a fireplace.
In most mantle pieces there is a subtle protruding shelf, which can be seen at closer examination of the photograph. This mantle is a combination of oak molding and brick work. It is found in the Harris House, which was the previous residence of the headmaster at Hotchkiss.
Completed in 2004, the new Esther Eastman Music Center was a complete change in architectural style for Hotchkiss. This modern building houses a performance hall, rehearsal space, classrooms and offices. It was designed by the renowned Connecticut architectural firm, Centerbrook Architects.
The central aisle of a church or chapel, located between the main entrance of the building and the chancel.
The nave is separated by the side aisles by columns or piers. The Hotchkiss School chapel was constructed in 1931, and designed by architectural firm Delano & Aldrich. Graduate of Yale Divinity School and chief designer, Henry Waterbury, fashioned the chapel after many of his past encounters with such architecture. The chapel includes a three-bay nave with long, slender columns and a barrel vaulted ceiling.
The oculus found on the third floor of Buehler Hall is typical of Classical architecture and refers to the circular windows seen above. Also known as bulls eye (oculus is Latin for eye), it highlights that Buehler dormitory has a third floor. Designed by architect Henry Waterbury, Buehler was originally constructed in 1936. The dorm houses approximately 80 girls, and is located just beyond the front gates of Hotchkiss. The dorm is nearly symmetrical with Coy, which is just across the street.
A projecting bay window most typically found in English residential architecture, Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival
A roof-entranced porch surrounded on at least one side by columns.
This was typically found in ancient Greece, because Porticos were commonly used as temple entrances. The Portico found outside of Memorial Hall is a tetrastyle Portico, meaning it consists of four columns. Memorial Hall was originally constructed in 1923, and was the first addition to the Hotchkiss campus in the 20th century. Memo is a typical Georgian style dorm, and was designed by Cass Gilbert.
A covered platform that is an extension of a building, most commonly found at the building’s entrance.
The Harris House was originally constructed in 1894, and was the headmaster’s residence for over a century. From 1904-1924 the building was expanded by the New York architectural firm Rossiter & Wright. The building is now mainly used for admissions, and the name Harris House was coined after the brothers of John Houghton Harris ‘35 named it as a memorial gift in his honor.
The porch incorporates Ionian-style columns as well as block modillions, which are seen above the columns.
The immediate area around the principal altar.
From the Latin word "sanctuarium," for "holy place," the sanctuary is used to denote a sacred area and the buildings that surround it in the classical world. In a Christian church, it is the area around the altar. The Chapel was built in honor of Paul Block and his sons in 1931. Architect: Delano&Aldrich; Henry Stuart Waterbury
An elaborate coffin for an important personage, of terra-cotta, wood, stone, metal, or other material, covered with painting, carving, etc., and large enough to contain only the body.
If larger, it becomes a tomb. Chest for inhumation. The term is generally applied to substantial or decorated types of coffins, of which there are examples from many different contexts worldwide. Where: Town Hill Cemetery; architect: unknown; age: The cemetery preceded everything around it including Hotchkiss itself. The headstones date from colonial times.
A round gable across a portico, door or window, in addition to a horizontal cornice at a level with the eaves, also called Rounded Pediment.
Pediments come in many forms. While most pediments are triangular in shape, segmental pediments are a variation, where the upward linear slopes are replaced by a segment of a circle. Pediments may crown façades or individual façade elements, and can be made in varying forms, including broken pediments, which were common in Baroque architecture, and some swan's neck pediments as well as round pediments that were used in Classical architecture. Pediments stem from Ancient Greece around 650 B.C., and were used to provide symmetry in the monumental facades of Greek temples. Later on, pediments were implemented by the Romans and Etruscans as decorative articulation of walls and niches, and can be found within the Italian Renaissance, as well as many revivalist architecture styles. Where: Esther Eastman Music Center; architect: Jefferson B. Riley, FAIA of Centerbrook Architects and Planners in Centerbrook, CT; age: built in 2006 — Boyoon Choi '09
The building incorporates sustainable design features and strategies that align with LEED principles, a nationally-accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings. Glass walls were used in Elfers Hall to allow views into and out of the music pavilion, making it an especially enjoyable performance venue. Panoramic views look out to the Berkshire hills and Lake Wononscopomuc on the Hotchkiss campus. Dramatic views look in to see music being made, making music accessible and inviting to all. (Hotchkiss Magazine; "Music Building Wins Architecture Awards," 02/16/2007)
Also called Palladian Window or Venetian Window. Serliana, named afterthe Italian Mannerist architect Sebastiano Serlio, is a window with a central arched section flanked by two narrow rectangular sections. This window is more commonly known as Palladian or even Venetian window, since the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio popularized it. In Greek Revival style, Palladian windows evolve into rectangular tripartite forms. Where: Bissell Dormitory, named after Maria Bissell Hotchkiss, the founder of The Hotchkiss School. The building was built in tawny brick with an imposing central four-story mass and a harmonious succession of roof planes. The main entrance was originally in the half-round stair tower. Architect: Bruce Price; age: built in 1894, renovated in 1973.
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Snakelike: convex in the center, flanked by concave ends.
A projection at the corner of an architrave of a door or window; any small projecting member or part of a piece or structure, either decorative or structural.
Doors, windows and chimney pieces often have shoulders. Waterbury conceived Ford Library as a complement to the chapel he had designed, with roughly the same footprint, the same height, the same red brick and white trim. Seen from the south, today’s Library appears unchanged from Waterbury’s day. Architect: Delano & Aldrich, Henry Stuart Waterbury; Age: 1952; renovated in 1981
A roof having a sloping (hipped) end cutting off a gable.
Also called Clipped gable, Hipped gable.
Undersurface of an architectural feature, such as an arch, lintel, vault, door-head or balcony.
The exposed underside of any overhead component of a building such as balcony, beam, cornice, etc. Where: Science Building. The first building devoted to a single academic subject, this building emerged from a new nationwide emphasis on high school science education. In 1999, the building was renovated with new features such as a fossil wall in the lobby, creating "intimate combination of beauty and function." Architect: T.M. Prentice; age: built in 1963; renovated in 1999
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In a multistory building, a wall panel filling the space between the top of the window in one story and the sill of the window in the story above
(the second definition of spandrel is applied to the surface between two arches and a horizontal moulding or cornice in an arcade and to the curved surface between two adjacent ribs in a vault. In modern architecture it is used for the infill panels above and below the windows in curtain walling. ) Spandrel panel can be found in almost all styles of architecture. Where: Esther Eastman Music Center; architect: Jefferson B. Riley, FAIA of Centerbrook Architects and Planners in Centerbrook, CT. For more information about the building's features, click here.
A tall ornamental structure; a tower, composed of a series of stories, diminishing in size, and topped by a small pyramid, spire or cupola.
Seen here are the steeples on the Hotchkiss Chapel and the Monahan Building.
A type of broken pediment with S-shaped curves, like two swans' necks facing each other. A finial often rises between the scrolls.
This pediment is found above Maria Hotchkiss's portrait in the Dining Hall.Round tables replaced original refectory tables and The Luke Foyer entries are situated right in front of the dining hall. The Foyer entrances used to be the main entrances to the building. Architect: Waterbury; age 1894, renovated twice, in 1948 and 1974
The trabeated system has been omnipresent in architecture and is one of the most fundamental principles of building. Despite elaboration and ornamentation, the trabeated system is still used, and can be found at Hotchkiss in, but not limited to, the Main Building and Harris House. —Haley O'Brien '09
1. A horizontal dividing bar of stone or wood above a window or between a door and a window above it - also known as a transom bar
2. A small window, sometimes hinged, above the transom bar of a door or another window - also known as a transom light
3. A lintel.
Examples here are from Main Building and Harris House.